What Is Sahiwal Cow? - Sahiwal Cow

Sahiwal Cow - A Complete Info

Sahiwal Cow

Cattle Name

Sahiwal 

Binomial Nomenclature

Bos (primigenius) indicus

Other Name

Mint Kumre

Nickname 

Lambi Bar, Lola, Montgomery, Multani and Teli

Phylum 

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Artiodactyla

Family

Bovidae

Breed

Zebu

Color

Reddish brown to red color

Country of origin

Punjab, Pakistan 

Found In 

Indo-Pak border in Ferozepur and Amritsar districts of Punjab, and Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan

Cattle type

Desi (indigenous), including Pakistan

Milk type

A2

Used for

Dual-purpose Dairy/Draft

Potential, yield 

40-50 liters milk/day, 4.5% butterfat

Average body size

Large (550-650 kg)

Body design 

Black and white short-haired coat

Horn status

Horned


What is Sahiwal Cow? : A Brief Description

Sahiwal is a Zebu cattle breed that produces high-quality milk with a high butterfat content. The Sahiwal originated in Pakistan's Sahiwal district and grew up in India's Punjab region. The Sahiwal cattle originated in the dry Punjab region along the Indian-Pakistan border. 

They were once kept in large herds by professional herdsmen and were known as "Charwahas." However, with the development of irrigation systems, farmers in the region kept fewer Sahiwal cattle in order to use them as dairy animals.

In modern times, Sahiwal cattle are regarded as one of the top dairy breeds in India and Pakistan, owing to their high milk production and resistance to tick-borne diseases. Sahiwal is a rare breed of cow that is very popular among farmers. 

The reason for its popularity is that Sahiwal is extremely efficient at producing milk and giving birth to young ones. Apart from that, Sahiwal breed milk has a higher fat content and is healthier than milk from other imported cow breeds.

According to KARI (Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute) research, the breed is a good milk producer compared to other local breeds, capable of producing an average of 8-10kgs per day, with 4.5% content in the milk, over a period of 10 months. It has larger teats than other Zebu breeds, making milking easier.

History Of Sahiwal Breed

The Sahiwal came from the dry Punjab region of central Punjab. Professional herdsmen known as "Charwahas" used to keep them in large herds. With the introduction of irrigation systems to the region, farmers began to keep fewer of them as dairy and draught animals. 

The Sahiwal is now regarded as one of the best dairy breeds in both India and Pakistan. When it comes to milking, Sahiwal remains calm. Because of their high milk production and tolerance to heat, they have been exported to other Asian nations as well as to Africa and the Caribbean.

Distribution Of Sahiwal Cow

Everything you need to know about Sahiwal Cow

Because of its distinct characteristics, the Sahiwal breed is exported to a wide range of countries and regions. In the early 1950s, the Sahiwal breed arrived in Australia via New Guinea. The Sahiwal breed was initially chosen as a dual-purpose breed in Australia. It aided in the evolution of two Australian tropical dairy breeds, the Australian Milking Zebu and the Australian Friesian Sahiwal. 

Because crossing high-quality Sahiwal sires with European breeds produced a carcass with desirable fat cover, Sahiwal cattle are now primarily used for beef production in Australia. Sahiwal bulls have been shown to be capable of siring small, fast-growing calves that are weather-resistant.

The contribution of the Sahiwal breed to adaptability has been well documented in Kenya, Jamaica, Guyana, Burundi, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and several African ecological zones where Sahiwals have been crossed with exotic Bos taurus breeds with a high response capability for milk and beef production but lack adaptability to local conditions. 

The current generation of Sahiwal cattle in Kenya is descended from 60 bulls and 12 cows imported between 1939 and 1963. Among Bos indicus breeds, the Sahiwal breed is also thought to be unrivaled in transmitted effects for milk production. Kenya is Africa's main source of Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle, and it serves as an important source of stock and sperm for the continent.

Similarly, this breed is exported to many other Asian countries, including India. The cows have the heaviest milking capacity of any zebu breed and a well-developed udder. The Research Centre for Conservation of Sahiwal Cattle protects the breed in Pakistan. 

Physical Properties Of Sahiwal Cow 

Sahiwal is a reddish brown to red color with varying amounts of white on the neck and underline. The color darkens towards the head, neck, legs, and tail of male breeds. This breed is also known for having droopy ears. The hump is quite large in males, but it is negligible in females.

  • They are extremely tall and long.
  • The skin surrounding the umbilicus becomes slack and thick.
  • This Sahiwal's forehead is elevated, and his head is shot size.
  • Horns are both strong and small in size.
  • The udder is large and dangling.
  • The tail of a Sahiwal cow is very long, about to touch the ground.
  • Adult cattle weights range between 400 and 500 kg, with cow weights between 700 and 800 kg.
  • It takes approximately 3-3.5 years to produce the first calf.
  • The cow can produce 12-15 kg of milk per day and 3000-4000 kg per year.
  • When a calf is born, it weighs between 22 and 28 kg.
  • Sahiwal cow milk contains 4.5% fat.

Physical Features Of Sahiwal Cow

  • Head: The head of a Sahiwal cow is long and round on the forehead.
  • Weight: The Sahiwal cow is a large animal. The average weight of a Sahiwal cow is 450 kg.
  • Color: Most Sahiwal cows are red and brownish in color, but they can also be a golden-brown mixture.
  • Navel: The navel of a Sahiwal cow is 3-4 inches long. It's practically between the front and back legs.
  • Eyes: Sahiwal's cow eyes are black and appear lampblack on the eye linings.
  • Gallkambal: Sahiwal cow gallkambal extends from the chin to the udder. The gallkambal is the largest from the neck to the front legs and the smallest to the udder.
  • Hump: The hump on the back is a distinguishing feature of the Sahiwal cow. If the hump is perpendicular to the front legs, the cow is almost certainly a pure Sahiwal cow.
  • Size: A Sahiwal cow can grow to be 4 to 5 feet tall.
  • Horns: The horns of Sahiwal cows are neither large nor curved. The horns of Sahiwal cows are very small and thick in diameter.
  • Tale: The Sahiwal cow tale is wide at the top and narrows at the bottom.
  • Survival abilities: The Sahiwal cow can withstand high temperatures. It has a high immunity and can withstand common illnesses. However, when a Sahiwal cow is unable to handle diseases, it indicates a problem with you.
  • Behaviour: Because of its large size, the Sahiwal cow can be aggressive at times. But once they know you, they treat you with respect. It has also been observed that Sahiwal cows can be very active when moving around.

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Cost Of Sahiwal Cow

Sahiwal cow cost, feeding and everything

A Sahiwal cow's price is typically determined by milk production, age, and health. On average, a Sahiwal cow costs between Rs. 60, 000 and Rs. 75, 000.

Feeding Of Sahiwal Cows

A natural grassland is an ideal place for grazing these Sahiwal cows. This primarily includes grasses such as Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), star grass (Cynodon plectostachyum), and raised fodder grasses such as Boma Rhodes (Chloris gayana), Foxtail grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), and fodder sorghum.

It is highly recommended that cows graze in the paddocks in a rotational fashion to allow the grasses to regrow. Minerals and water are also important to the cattle of the Sahiwal Dairy Breed. For improved milk production, the Sahiwal kept for milk production can be linked to a protein legume and concentrate.

      Sahiwal Cow Milk Production 

      In comparison to all Zebu breeds, Sahiwal produces a large amount of milk, followed by Red Sindhi and Butana. While suckling a calf, cows produce an average of 2270 kg of milk. Lactation yields in Sahiwal cows range from 1400 to 2500 ksg on average in India, and this has been recorded over a 260–300-day period.

      This breed has one common issue in India and Pakistan, which is a shorter lactation length of 70–200 days. This cow's first calving age ranges from 37 to 48 months, with a calving interval of 430 to 580 days. In Pakistani Sahiwal, the age at first calving should be around 37 to 45 months, and calving intervals have been reported as 390 to 490 days.

      The other imported breed of cow can only produce 60 liters of milk at a time, whereas the cows in Sahiwal can produce 20 liters at a time. It can give birth to the calf for the rest of its life, whereas others can only give birth three or four times. When compared to other imported breeds, it can also withstand extreme weather conditions.

      Health Management Of Sahiwal Cow

      Ticks are the most dangerous threat to cows in grassland areas. To protect against tick-borne diseases, acaricide should be sprayed on animals once a week. To keep internal parasites at bay, deworm the animals once every three months, and if necessary, once every four or five months, depending on the helminth fecal egg count.

      In addition to the foregoing, routine vaccinations against diseases such as foot-and-mouth, anthrax, lumpy skin disease (LSD), and other epizootic diseases should be performed. The East Coast Fever (ECF) vaccine is now available on the market and can be administered once in the animal's lifetime to protect against foot-and-mouth disease. Anthrax vaccinations should also be administered twice a year.

      Advantages of Sahiwal cows

      • Milk production potential is high, with a low butter fat content of about 4.5%.
      • The level of feeding given to the Sahiwal, as well as other management factors, will determine milk production. 
      • It is suitable for no grazing.
      • It is suitable for frequent calving during its lifetime, so replacements are not required.
      • It conceives valuable male calves.
      • They have a lower number of cells.

      Disadvantages of Sahiwal cows

      • Sahiwal is a powerful feeder.
      • It requires high-level management.
      • It is disease-prone and susceptible to milk fever.
      • Feed requirements are high (90-110 kg fresh forage per day, equivalent to three gunny bags).
      • Sufficient clean water is required (a minimum of 60 liters per day, more for heavy yielders).

      Sahiwal Cow Milk

      Sahiwal milk contains 5-6% fat, whereas other breeds' milk contains only 3% fat. Sahiwal's milk contains three types of protein: alpha, beta, and globin. Beta protein has alleles A1 and A2. Only the Sahiwal breed has allele A2, which contains proline rather than the histidine protein found in other breeds' milk.

      Because of the presence of this extra allele, Sahiwal's milk is a blessing to humanity, as it aids in the treatment of diseases like cholesterol, diabetes, and heart disease. This is why the Sahiwal cow is considered a rare breed.

      Sahiwal Cow Milk Benefits

      Some notable benefits of A2 cow milk (Sahiwal cow) are given below. 

      • Amino Acids: Sahiwal cow A2 milk contains amino acids that help fight diseases such as obesity, joint pain, asthma, and mental issues.
      • Omega fats: Omega Fatty Acids found in Sahiwal cow milk helps to regulate blood vessel function.
      • Amino fatty acid: Amino fatty acid promotes fitness and vitality.
      • Calcium-rich: The calcium in Sahiwal cow A2 milk is essential for bone growth and development. Calcium aids in the reduction of PMS symptoms during the menstrual cycle and also prevents migraine headaches. It is also useful in preventing gout, a type of arthritis.
      • Cancer prevention: Sahiwal cow milk protects colon cells from chemicals that cause cancer.
      • Fat oxidation: Sahiwal cow milk promotes fat oxidation while also regulating parathyroid hormone-calcium secretion hormone secretion. This contributes to bone health.
      • Anemia is prevented: Rich in vitamins B2 and B12, which aid in the production of red blood cells. This aids in the prevention of anemia and the production of nerve cells. In addition, vitamin B12 helps cells use protein carbohydrates.
      • Vitamin A-rich: Vitamin A in Sahiwal Cow milk promotes the development and growth of mucosa and epithelial tissues. Cold rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a vitamin A deficiency.
      • Heart Functioning: Potassium, which is found in Sahiwal Cow milk, promotes proper heart function, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction. It also protects against ear infections and other diseases.
      • Kidney Stones are avoided. Sahiwal Cow A2 milk helps to prevent the formation of kidney stones.
      • Reduces Acidity: Sahiwal Cow A2 milk aids in acid reduction.
      • Cholesterol regulation: Sahiwal Cow A2 milk helps to keep serum cholesterol at bay.

      Sahiwal Cow Ghee

      Sahiwal Cow Ghee

      Buy A2 Sahiwal Cow Ghee Directly From Our Farm

      Sahiwal A2 ghee has far superior immunity-building properties than any other type of ghee on the market. Furthermore, it is the best choice if you want high-protein premium ghee.

      Sahiwal A2 cow premium ghee has a higher nutritional value than regular ghee. Sahiwal A2 ghee has a grainy texture and is made by slowly simmering butter for hours. This process ensures that the nutrients in the ghee are not lost due to the high temperatures used in the production of regular ghee in factories.

      A2 cow ghee contains a higher concentration of Omega-3 fatty acids. Aside from these benefits, one of the most notable reasons why Sahiwal A2 ghee is healthier is the absence of preservatives and additives.

      Sahiwal Cow Ghee Benefits

      Some notable benefits of Sahiwal cow ghee are given below: 

      • Digestion at its best: Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid found in the human gut, is present in A2 ghee. Consuming the recommended amount of Sahiwal A2 cow ghee per meal can help you promote better digestion and gut health while lowering your risk of colon cancer.
      • Improves cardiovascular health: A2 ghee contains vitamin K2, which helps prevent artery blockages and improves blood flow. This ghee is also high in CLA, which helps to lower bad cholesterol while promoting good cholesterol.
      • Good for skin health: Sahiwal A2 cow ghee contains an ideal balance of vitamins A, E, and D. These vitamins and antioxidants are essential for the skin's collagen levels and elasticity. A spoonful or two of this ghee will help you brighten and moisturize your skin.
      • It keeps your joints lubricated: If you suffer from joint pain or arthritis, you must include A2 ghee in your diet. It relieves arthritis-related inflammation, lubricates the joints, and reduces stiffness. A2 ghee, which is high in vitamin A, is also important for your growing child's bone development.
      • Prevents colds and viral flu: Because A2 ghee is high in fatty acids and vitamins, it protects your body from illnesses caused by winter weather changes. Because of this magical potion, your body maintains a warmer core temperature, which helps you beat the winter chill and maintain your immune shield.
      • Promotes weight loss: Butyric acid in Sahiwal ghee, which aids digestion, also aids in the burning of stubborn body fat, thereby increasing metabolism. For people with high cholesterol, many doctors recommend desi ghee instead of butter.
      • Increase in Immunity: Desi Sahiwal Ghee, which is high in fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, aids in immunity building. These vitamins are essential for the proper functioning of the heart, brain, and bone development.

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      Some Diseases And Their Treatment ( Sahiwal Cow )

      Anaplasmosis

      Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Anaplasma marginale. Its symptoms include a high body temperature, nasal discharge, coughing, teeth grinding, inappetence, and a pale and icteric mucous membrane.

      Treatment: To control the insect population, acaricidal medicine is sprayed or dipped. A serological test is used to diagnose anaplasmosis. If the test results are positive, a qualified veterinary doctor will treat you right away.

      Anemia

      Anemia causes muscle weakness, depression, anorexia, and an increase in body temperature. The disease is caused by poor nutrition management, a lack of nutrients in the diet, and a lack of colostrum intake.

      Treatment: To treat anemia, vitamins A, B, and E are added to the diet, and an injection of iron dextrin (@150mg) is given.

      Anthrax

      Anthrax is a highly infectious and lethal cattle disease caused by the spore-forming rectangular-structured bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is found in every region and causes severe mortality in ruminants. Toxins produced by the microbe are extremely potent, resulting in negative effects and a large number of deaths. 

      When exposed to air, the microbe produces spores. Symptoms of the disease usually appear 4–7 days after inhaling or ingesting the spores. When symptoms appear in animals, they usually die within a couple of days. They typically contract the disease by ingesting anthrax spores while grazing on anthrax-infected pastures. Breathing in colorless, odorless, and tasteless spores can also cause infection in animals as well as in humans. 

      Treatment: Only in the subacute stage of illness can treatment be administered. They can only be treated in the early stages. Ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and penicillin are the antibiotics used to treat them.

      Foot and Mouth Disease

      Foot-and-mouth disease: Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-footed pets or animals. Fever, vesicle growth, and blisters in the udder, oral cavity, teats, and even on the dermis between the paws and above the hooves are symptoms.

      Mammals that have recovered from the disorder have an irregular covering and deformed hooves. This disorder is common in India. The infection spreads through direct contact or indirectly through contaminated manure, fluids, and hay. Cattle attendants can also transport it. It can be spread by reclaimed livestock or birds. There is a high temperature, hanging saliva, and lameness.

      Treatment: Antiseptics should be used to treat ulcers. Use a 5:1 ratio of copper sulfate and coal tar for the foot lesion. Vaccines should be administered as recommended. To control the files and spore, proper care of sanitized vesicles should be used.

      Mastitis

      Mastitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the mammary gland and is a major cause of death in livestock worldwide. Though external wounds or pressure cause swelling of the gland, the most common cause of mastitis is contamination by invading microbes (yeasts, fungi, and even viruses). Diseases begin when microbes enter the teat canal and spread to the mammary gland.

      Treatment: Mastitis can be controlled by dipping the teat after each milking in germicide. During pregnancy, heifers are given antibiotics. Effective drugs include gramicidin, tyrothricin, and acriflavine. Other effective drugs for its treatment include penicillin, sulphonamides, and streptomycin.

      Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs

      What is special about Sahiwal cow?

      They are generally docile and lethargic, which makes them ideal for slow work. The Sahiwal is the heaviest milker among the Zebu breeds, with a well-developed udder. Sahiwals are known for their ability to sire small, fast-growing calves as well as their hardiness in harsh weather conditions.

      Why is Sahiwal famous?

      The Sahiwal is now considered one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. Sahiwal is composed while milking. They have been exported to other Asian countries, as well as to Africa and the Caribbean, due to their heat tolerance and high milk production. 

      How much milk does a Sahiwal cow give?

      The cow can produce 12-15 kg of milk per day and 3000-4000 kg per year. When a calf is born, it weighs between 22 and 28 kg. Sahiwal cow milk contains 4.5% fat.

      Is Sahiwal cow milk good for health?

      When compared to other types of milk, the fat content of this milk is also very low, at 4-5%. Pure Sahiwal milk contains three kinds of protein: alpha, beta, and globin. It also has conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is an important acid that lowers bad cholesterol and thus improves overall heart health.

      Why A2 milk is costly?

      Cows that produce A1 milk are more likely to produce more than A2 milk, which is why most companies began to sell A1 milk so that milk could be made more affordable to the general public. Meanwhile, the amount of A2 milk produced is smaller. As a result, A2 milk is more expensive than regular A1 milk.

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